Andres Bonifacio, "Pagibig sa tinubuang Bayan," google.sites.pages

Andres Bonifacio (attrib.), “Pagibig sa tinubuang Bayan,” c. March 1896

Sources: José P. Santos, Si Andres Bonifacio at ang Himagsikan (Manila: n.pub, 1935), 8–10; and A.B., “Pagibig sa tinubuang Bayan,” manuscript in Archivo General Militar de Madrid, Caja 5677, leg. 1.94.



Probably the best known of all Katipunan texts, this paean to patriotism calls upon the people to rise up and rescue the unhappy motherland from her torment.  The poem was published in Kalayaan in March 1896 above the initials “A. I. B.”#  It is generally accepted that these initials stand for “Agapito Bagumbayan,” which was the pseudonym placed beneath another contribution to the paper – “Ang dapat mabatid ng mga tagalog” – and that both pieces were written by Bonifacio.#  The pseudonym connotes something like “the new nation is here, and ready.”#  


Two texts


Unfortunately, no printed copy of Kalayaan has yet been located, and perhaps none has survived.  The familiar Tagalog text of “Pagibig,” which was first published by José P. Santos in 1935, was probably transcribed not from an actual printed copy of the paper, but from a handwritten draft.#  There is no way of knowing for sure whether this was the final draft prior to the poem being set in type, or whether there were later amendments.  No facsimile or photograph of the document that Santos copied has ever been placed in the public domain, and possibly it has been lost.   


A manuscript copy of “Pagibig sa tinubuang Bayan” has survived, however, in the military archives in Madrid.  This too is a draft, and it is almost certainly an earlier draft than the text published by Santos.  The poem at that stage was evidently still a “work in progress”, and the manuscript is marked with several amendments, some of which are reflected in the Santos text and some of which are not.  


The two texts of “Pagibig” – the later, Santos version and the earlier, Madrid version – are transcribed below in parallel, and the discrepancies between them, large and small, are highlighted in the Madrid version.  As can be seen, the significant discrepancies are confined to just a handful of the poem’s 28 stanzas.     


A note on the front page of the Madrid manuscript indicates that the handwriting is that of Emilio Jacinto.  Signed by sometime KKK Supreme Council member Valentin Diaz, the note reads “Letra de Emilio Jacinto según manifiesta Aguedo del Rosario” – Aguedo del Rosario being another KKK Supreme Council member.  There is little doubt that this identification is correct.  But the identity of the penman, of course, does not necessarily correspond with the identity of the author, and at the foot of the poem are inscribed the initials “A.B.,” obviously suggesting that Bonifacio was the author.   It is possible that Jacinto copied out the text whilst Kalayaan was being prepared for publication, presumably for editing purposes.    


There is perhaps a further sliver of evidence indicative of Bonifacio’s authorship in the orthography of the text published by José P. Santos.  There are several words in the text in which the letter “g” is followed by the double vowel “ui” –  guinhawa, for example, guiliw, ibiguin and palaguing.  These spellings are not “wrong,” or even that rare, but more commonly (at least from the late 19th century onwards) writers have omitted the “u” and employed the forms ginawa, giliw and so on.  Emilio Jacinto almost invariably omitted the “u”, and the manuscript of “Pagibig” in his handwriting, as can be seen, renders none of these words with the “ui” combination.#  Bonifacio, on the other hand, switched back and forth, sometimes using the “ui” forms and sometimes not.  By this particular measure, at least, the document from which Santos transcribed the published text of “Pagibig” thus seem more likely to have been penned by Bonifacio than by Jacinto.  Tagalog scholars might be able to discern other variations in orthography (and perhaps in style) that would corroborate or confute this line of speculation.



Tagalog texts


The text published by José P. Santos is transcribed in the left-hand column below, and the Madrid manuscript – the earlier draft – is transcribed in the right-hand column.


The verse numbers do not appear in the originals, and have been inserted simply to facilitate comparison between the Tagalog versions and the two translations into English that have been transcribed underneath.  



Text reproduced in José P. Santos, Si Andres Bonifacio at ang Himagsikan (Manila: n.pub, 1935), 8-10.



PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG BAYAN



Manuscript draft in the Archivo General Militar de Madrid, Caja 5677, leg. 1.94.




Pagibig sa tinubuang Bayan


Panaho’y matamis sa tinubuang Bayan

at pawang panglugod ang balang matanauan[?],

ang simoy sa parang ay panghatid buhay,

tapat ang pagirog, sulit ang mamatay.#


J. Rizal



1.

Alin pag ibig pa ang hihigit kaya
sa pagka dalisay at pagkadakila
gaya ng pag ibig sa tinubuang lupa?
alin pag ibig pa? wala na nga, wala.

1.

Aling pagibig pa ang hihigit kaya
sa pagk
adalisay at pagkadakila
gaya ng pa
gibig sa tinubuang lupa?
¿alin pagibig pa? wala na nga; wala.

2.

Ulitulitin mang basahin ng isip
at isa isahing talastasing pilit
ang salitat buhay na limbag at titik
ng sang katauhan itoy namamasid.

2.

Ulitulitin mang basahin ng isip
at isa
-isahing talastasing pilit
ang salita
’t buhay na limbag at titik
ng
sangtinakpan ito ang mababatid.

3.

¡Banal na pag ibig!  pag ikaw ang nukal
sa tapat na puso ng sino't alin man
imbit taong gubat maralitat mang mang
naguiguing dakila at iguinagalang.

3.

¡Banal na pagibig! pagikaw ang nukal
sa tapat na puso ng sino't alin man
,
imb
i’t taong gubat maralita’t mangmang
nag
iging dakila at iginagalang.

4.

Pagpupuring lubos ang palaguing hangad
sa bayan ng taong may dangal na ingat
umawit tumula kumathat sumulat
kalakhan din nia'y isinisiwalat.

4.

Pagpupuring lubos ang palaging gawad
ng taong mahal sa Bayan niyang liyag
umawit
, tumula, kumatha’t sumulat
kalakhan din ni
ya'y isinisiwalat.

5.

Walang mahalagang hindi inihandog
ng mga pusong mahal sa Bayang nagkupkup
dugo yaman dunong katiisat pagod
buhay may abuting magkalagot lagot.


5.

Walang mahalagang hindi inihandog
ng
may pusong mahal sa Bayan niyang irog
dugo
, yaman, dunong, katiisa’t pagod,
buhay
ma’y abuting magkalagot-lagot.


6.

Bakit? alin ito na sakdal ng laki
na hinahandugan ng boong pag kasi
na sa lalung mahal na kapangyayari
at guinugugulan ng buhay na iwi.

6.

¿Bakit? ¿alin ito na sakdal ng laki,
na hinahandugan ng b
uong pagkasi,
na sa lalung mahal n
akapangyayari
at g
inugugulan ng buhay na iwi?

7.

¡Ay! itoy ang Ynang Bayang tinubuan
siya'y inat tangi na kinamulatan
ng kawiliwiling liwanag ng araw
na nagbigay init sa lunong katawan.

7.

¡Ah! itoy ang inang Bayang tinubuan
na siyang una’t tangi na kinamulatan
ng kawiliwiling liwanag ng araw
na nagbigay init sa lunong katawan.

8.

Sa kania'y utang ang unang pagtangap
ng simuy ng hanging nagbibigay lunas
sa inis na puso na sisingapsingap
sa balong malalim ng siphayo't hirap.

8.

Sa kaniya ay utang ang unang paglangap
ng sim
oy ng hanging nagbibigay lunas
sa inis na puso na sisingap
-singap
ng pinakadustang kanyang mga anak.

9.

Kalakip din nitoy pag ibig sa Bayan
ang lahat ng lalung sa gunitay mahal
mula sa masaya't gasong kasangulan
hangang sa kataway mapa sa libingan.

9.

Kalakip din nitong pagibig sa Bayan
lahat ng lalung mahal#
mula sa
tuat aliw ng kasangulan
hangang sa katawa
y mapasa libingan.

10.

Ang nanga karaang panahun ng aliw
ang inaasahang araw na darating
ng pagkatimawa ng mga alipin
liban pa sa bayan saan tatanghalin?

10.

Ang nangakaraang panahun ng aliw
ang inaasahang araw na darating
ng pagkatimawa ng mga alipin
liban pa sa
Bayan, ¿saan tatanghalin?

11.

At ang balang kahuy at ang balang sanga
na parang nia't gubat na kaaya aya
sukat ang makitat sa sa ala ala
ang inat ang guiliw lumipas na saya.

11.

At ang balang kahuy at ang balang sanga
ng parang niya't gubat na kaaya-aya
kung makita’y susagi sa alaala
ang ina
t ang giliw, lumipas na saya.

12.

Tubig niyang malinaw na anaki'y bubog
bukal sa batisang nagkalat sa bundok
malambut na huni ng matuling ayos
na naka a aliw sa pusong may lungkot.

12.

Tubig niyang malinaw na anaki'y bubog
bukal sa batisang nagkalat sa bundok
malamb
ot na huni ng matuling agus
nakaaaliw din sa pusung may lungkot.

13.

Sa aba ng abang mawalay sa Bayan!
gunita may laguing sakbibi ng lumbay
walang alaalat inaasam asam
kung di ang makita'y lupang tinubuan.



13.

¡Sa aba ng mawalay sa tinubuang Bayan
gunita
niya’y laging sakbibi ng lumbay
walang alaala
t inaasam-asam,
kung di ang makita'y ang lupa
niyang mahal.



14.

Pati ng magdusat sampung kamatayan
wari ay masarap kung dahil sa Bayan
At lalung maghirap ¡oh! himalang bagay
Lalung pag irog pa ang sa kaniay alay.

14.

Pati ng magdusa't sampung kamatayan
wari ay masarap kung dahil sa Bayan;
at lalung maghirap
, ¡oh! himalang bagay!
lalung pa
girog pa ang sa kaniya'y alay.

15.

Kung ang bayang ito'y nasasa panganib
at sia ay dapat na ipagtangkilik
ang anak, asawa, magulang kapatid
isang tawag niay tatalikdang pilit.

15.

Kung ang Bayang ito'y nasasapanganib
at kinakailangang siya’y ipagtankilik
ang anak
, asawa, magulang, kapatid
sa isang tawag niyay tatalikdang pilit.

16.

Dapuat kung ang bayan ng katagalugan
ay linalapastangan at niyuyurakan
katuiran puri niyat kamahalan
ng sama ng lilong taga ibang bayan.

16.

Dapuat kung ang Baya’y ang Katagalugan
na nilapastangan at niyuyurakan
katuiran
niya’t puri ng tagaibang Bayan,
ng tunay na bangis ng hayop sa parang,

17.

Di gaano kaya ang paghihinagpis
ng pusong tagalog sa puring na lait?
at alin kalooban na lalong tahimik
ang di pupukawin sa panghihimagsik?

17.

¿Di gaano kaya ang paghihinagpis
ng pus
ung tagalog sa puring na lait?
at
¿aling kalooban na lalung tahimik
ang di pupukawin sa panghihimagsik?

18.

Saan magbubuhat ang paghihinay [???]
sa paghihigantit gumugol ng buhay
kung wala ding iba na kasasadlakan
kung di ang lugami sa kaalipinan?

18.

¿Saan magbubuhat ang panghihinayang
sa paghihiganti
t gumugol ng buhay,
kung wala ding iba na kasasadlakan
,
kung di ang
lumagi sa kaalipinan?

19.

Kung ang pagka baun niya't pagka busabos
sa lusak ng dayat tunay na pag ayop
supil ang pang hampas tanikalang gapos
at luha na lamang ang pina a agos.

19.

¿Kung ang pagkabaun niya’t pagkalugmok
sa lusak ng daya
t tunay na pagayop,
supil
ng panghampas tanikalang gapos,
at luha na lamang ang pin
aaagos?

20.

Sa kaniang anyo'y sino ang tutunghay
na di aakain sa gawang magdamdam
pusong naglilipak sa pakasukaban
na hindi gumugugol ng dugo at buhay.

20.

Sa anyo niyang ito’y ¿sino ang tutunghay
na di aaka
yin sa gawang magdamdam?
pusong naglilipak sa
pagkasukaban
ang hindi gumugol ng dugo at buhay.

21.

Mangyayari kaya na itoy malangap
ng mga tagalog at hindi lumingap
sa naghihingalong Ynang na sa yapak
na kasuklamsuklam sa kastilang hamak.

21.

¿Mangyayari kaya, na itoy malangap,
at hindi lingapin ng tunay na anak,
kung sa inang liig ay nasasayapak
ng mga kastilang gumanti ng hirap?

22.

Nasaan ang dangal ng mga tagalog
nasaan ang dugung dapat na ibuhos?
baya'y inaapi bakit di kumilos?
at natitilihang itoy mapanood.



22.

¿Nasaan ang dangal ng mga tagalog?
¿nasaan ang dugong dapat na ibuhos?
Baya'y inaapi, ¿bakit di kumilos,
at natitilihang ito
y mapanood?


23.

Hayo na nga kayo, kayong nanga buhay
sa pag asang lubos na kaguinhawahan
at walang tinamo kundi kapaitan
hayo nat ibiguin ang naabang bayan.

23.

Hayo na nga, kayo, kayong nangabuhay
sa pa
gasang lubos ng kaginhawahan,
at walang tinamo kung di kapaitan
,
hayo na
t ibigin ang naabang Bayan.

24.

Kayong natuyan na sa kapapasakit
ng dakilang hangad sa batis ng dibdib
muling pabalungit tunay na pag-ibig
kusang ibulalas sa bayang piniit.

24.

Kayong natuyan na, sa kapapasakit
ng dakilang hangad sa batis ng dibdib
,
muling pabalungi
n, tunay na pagibig
kusang ibulalas sa
Bayang piniit.

25.

Kayong nalagasan ng bungat bulaklak
kahuy niaring buhay na nilantat sukat
ng balabalakit makapal na hirap
muling manariwat sa baya'y lumiyag.

25.

Kayong nalagasan ng bungat bulaklak,
kahuy
na sariwa, na nilantat sukat
ng balabalaki
t makapal na hirap
muling manariwa
t sa Baya'y lumiyag.

26.

Kayong mga pusong kusang [???]
ng daya at bagsik ng ganid na asal
ngayon ay magbanguit baya'y itangkakal
aagawin sa kuko ng mga sukaban.

26.

Kayo mga pusong pilit inihapay
ng daya at bagsik ng ganid na asal
,
ngayon ay magbangu
’t nariyan ang Bayan,
nariya’t humihibik, mga anak siya’y antay.

27.

Kayong mga dukhang walang tanging [???]
kundi ang mabuhay sa dalitat hirap
ampunin ang bayan kung nasa ay lunas
pagkat ang guinhawa niya ay sa lahat.

27.

Kayong mga dukhang walang tanging palad,
kun
g di ang mabuhay sa dalitat hirap,
ampunin ang
Bayan, kung nasa ay lunas,
pagka
t ginhawa niya’y ginhawa ng lahat.

28.

Ipahandog handog ang boong pag-ibig
hangang sa mga dugo'y ubusing itiguis
kung sa pagtatangol buhay ay [???]
itoy kapalaran at tunay na langit.



28.

Datapua’t ibigin ng lubos na lubos
sa lahat ng bagay itangi sa loob
at sa kalakhan niya’y dapat na iubos
ng malaking puso ang malaking linkod.



A.B.



English translations


Transcribed in the left-hand column below is the translation made from Santos’s Tagalog text by Teodoro A. Agoncillo, as printed in The Writings and Trial of Andres Bonifacio, translated by Teodoro A. Agoncillo with the collaboration of S. V. Epistola (Manila: Antonio J. Villegas; Manila Bonifacio Centennial Commission; University of the Philippines, 1963), 5-8.


Transcribed in the right-hand column below is the translation made from Epifanio de los Santos’s Spanish version [[“Amor a la patria” in his “Andrés Bonifacio”, Revista Filipina, 2 (November 1917), 64-6.]] and published in Philippine Review, III:1-2 (January-February 1918), 40-1. De los Santos did not describe the document on which he based his Spanish translation, but it is reasonable to assume it was the same document that his son, Jose P. Santos, reproduced in Si Andres Bonifacio at ang Himagsikan two decades later.  The translation into English is generally credited to Gregorio Nieva, the publisher of Philippine Review, but this cannot be confirmed.#


Both translations, it may be noted, render “ang mga tagalog” as “the Filipinos” and “Katagalugan” as “Filipinas”.



Agoncillo translation

Love of Country

1.


What love can be
purer and greater
than love of country?
What love? No other love, none.

2.

Even when the mind repeatedly reads
and try to understand
the history that is written and printed
by humanity, this (love of country) can be seen.

3.

Holy love! when born
of a pure heart,
the humble and the backwoodsman, the poor, the unlettered
become great and respected.

4.

Love of country
is always the desire of a man with honor;
In songs, in poetry, in his writings
the greatness of the country is always the theme.

5.

Nothing dear to a person with a pure heart
is denied to the country that gave him birth:
blood, wealth, knowledge, sacrifices,
E'en if life itself ends.

6.

Why? what is this that is so big
to which is dedicated with utmost devotion,
all that is dear
and to which life is sacrificed.

7.

Ah, this is the Mother country of one's birth,
she is the mother on whom
the soft rays of the sun shine,
which gives strength to the weak body.

8.

To her one owes the first kiss
of the wind that is the balm
of the oppressed heart drowning
in the deep well of misfortune and suffering.

9.

Entwined with this is love of country,
everything that is dear to the memory,
from the happy and careless childhood
to the hour of death.

10.

The bygone days of joy,
the future that is hoped
will free the slaves,
where can this be found but in one's native land?

11.

Every tree and branch
of her fields and forest joyful to behold,
'tis enough to see them to remember
the mother, the loved one, and the happiness now gone.

12.

Her clear waters --
they come from the mountain springs,
the soft whisper of the rushing wavelets
enlivens the sorrowing heart.

13.

How unfortunate to be separated from the country!
Even memory is in sorrow's embrace,
nothing is desired
but to see the country of one's birth.

14

This fourteenth stanza is omitted in Agoncillo’s translation,  perhaps due simply to a printing or publishing  error.


15.

If this country is in danger
and she needs defending,
Forsaken are the children,
the wife, the parents, the brothers and sisters
at the country's beck and call.

16.

And if our land, Filipinas,
is offended and her honor, reason, and dignity outraged,
by a traitorous foreign country;

17.

What unhappiness and grief
will invade the heart of the Filipino?
And will not even the most peaceful
Rise to avenge her honor?

18.

Where will the strength
to take revenge and to throw away life come,
if none can be relied upon for help,
but those suffering from slavery?

19.

If his suffering and slavery
are in the mire of deceit and oppression,
one holds the whip, the chains that bind,
and only tears are allowed to roll down.

20.

Who is there to whom her condition
Will not fill the soul with sorrow?
Will the heart most hardened by treachery
Not be moved to give her its life blood?

21.

Will not, perchance, her sorrow
Drive the Filipinos to come to the rescue
of the mother in agony, trampled
underfoot by the mean Spaniards?

22.

Where is the honor of the Filipino?
where is the blood that should be shed?
The country is being oppressed, why not make a move,
you are shocked witnessing this.

23.

Go, you who have lived
in the full hope of comfort,
and who reaped nothing but bitterness,
Go and love the oppressed country.

24.

You who, from the stream of your breast,
have lost the holy desire to sacrifice,
Once more let true love flow,
express that love for the imprisoned country.

25.

You from whom the fruit and flowers
of your life have been plucked
by intrigues and incomparable sufferings,
once more freshen up and love thy country.

26.

You, so many hearts that... [???]
of cheating and oppression of the mean in actions,
now rise up and save the country,
snatch it from the claws of the tyrant.

27.

You who are poor without... [???]
except to live in poverty and suffering,
protect the country if your desire is to end
your sufferings, for her progress is for all.

28.

Dedicate with all your love --
as long there is blood -- shed every drop of it,
If for the defense of the country life is... [???]
this is fate and true glory.



Philippine Review translation

Love of Country

1.


Is there any love that is nobler
Purer and more sublime
Than the love of the native country?
What love is? Certainly none.

2.

Though the mind may not cease reflecting
And sifting with perseverance
What humanity has printed and written:
That will be the result, none other.

3.

Sacred love! when thou reignest
In a loyal heart, be it even
A plebeian's, a rustic's untutored
Thou makest it grand and revered.


4.

To give the fatherland boundless honor
Is the purpose of all who are worthy
And who sing, or compose, or make verses
To spread their country's glory.


5.

There is nothing worth having the patriot
Will not give for his native land:
Blood  and wealth, and knowledge and effort,
Even life, to be crushed and taken.

6.

Why? What thing of infinite greatness
Is this, that all knees should be bended
Before it? that it should be held higher
Than the things most precious, even life?

7.

Ah! the land it is that gave us birth,
Like a mother, and from her alone
Came the pleasant rays like the sun's
That warmed the benumbed body.

8.

To her we owe the first breath
That enlivened the breast oppressed
And smothered in the abyss
Of pain and grievous suffering.

9.

With the love of country are coupled
All dreams and all ideals,
From joyful, restless childhood
Till the grave receives the body.

10.

The times gone-by of gladness
And the day to come that we sigh for
When the yoke shall be taken from us:
What are they but dreams of the patriot?


11.

And every tree and branchlet
Of its woods and its laughing meadows,
Bring back to the mind the memory
Of the mother and past days of gladness.


12.

Its crystalline cooling waters
That flow from the springs in the mountains,
The soft murmur of swift current
Are balm to the heart that is drooping.

13.

Unhappy the exile from his country!
His mind, full of sad recollections,
Is haunted by anxious longing
For the land where stood his cradle.


14.

Misfortune and death seem lighter
When we suffer them for our country,
And the more that for it we suffer,

The more our love grows - oh, marvel!

15.

If our land with danger is threatened
And help must be quickly forthcoming,
Children, wife, and parents and brothers
At her first call we must abandon.


16.

And if our land, Filipinas,
Is offended, and outraged her honor
And her dignity into the mire
Is dragged by the foreign impostor:

17.

Will by boundless grief not invaded
Be the heart of the Filipino?
And will not the most peaceful even
Rise to avenge her honor?

18.

And whence will it come, the vengeance,
The sacrifice of our life blood,
If at the end of the struggle,
We shall fall into cruel bondage?

19.

If to her fall and prostration
Into the mire of fraud and derision
Will be added the lash and the shackles,
Naught being left her but mourning?

20.

Who is there whom her condition
Will not fill the soul with sorrow?
Will the heart most hardened by treachery
Not be moved to give her its life blood?

21.

Will not, perchance, her sorrow
Drive the Filipinos to come to the rescue
Of the mother in agony, trampled
Underfoot by the foe disgusting?

22.

Where is Filipino honor?
Where the blood that must be set flowing?
Their country in peril - why passive?
Will they calmly see her suffer?


23.

Come ye, who have been living
Of future felicity dreaming,
And have tasted naught but sorrow,
Come, love your unhappy country.

24.

Ye, in whom the struggling desire
Has dried the springs of the bosom,
May true love again be born in you
And flow for your suffering country.

25.

Ye, who have lost the fruit and the flower
Of the trees of this life, withered early
By so many perplexing sorrows,
Revive and succor your country.

26.

Ye, who are propitious victims
Of deceit and bestial rigor,
Arise now to save your country,
Free her from the claws of the traitor!


27.

Ye, wretches, who nothing demanded
But to live 'midst sorrows and torments,
Strike a blow to save your country,
Since she is our common mother.

28.

Unto her in holocaust loving
The last drop of your blood you must offer,
If to free her your life you have given,
Yours is glory then and redemption.



















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